Anticipation: The Theory of Prolepsis
The Dream of Consciousness and the Narrative of Metaphor
by Johnes Ruta
be narrated in any of these three tenses, past, present, or future. Situations
in a future scenario can be built on the platform of projected
past events in a future chronology, which, of course, can
be fictitious fabrications, or even prognostications of the author's own
Over the bridge between these linear and non-linear phases of history in the 20th century, there have already been non-linear attempts to describe various social panorama and interior personal experiences: Anyone who has done historical research, crime detection, jig-saw puzzles, or computer analysis will testify that the parts which lead to the solution of any kind of puzzle are very often discovered out of linear sequence.
In 20th century Literature,
it is already understood that several novels, such as as James Joyce's
Finnegan's Wake and Italo Calvino's Invisible Cities, have
already moved narrative beyond the limits of coherent understanding: This
literary observation has only just begun to make evident this structural
shift from descriptions of concrete reality into the frontiers of Incomprehension.
In psychological terms, any development of a literary form which further
opens the thematic limits of the human imagination must be understood
as a structural shift in concrete reality. This kind of development should
therefore be considered as a barometric or seismographic tool which aids
in the estimation of the dimensions of psychological and psychic "reality."
of Consciousness and the Narrative of Metaphor
a novel can work with different effects: it can build the value of compassion
or invoke less ideal emotions. Just as it is crucial that our perceptions
recognize and adapt to new situations brought about by new scientific
discoveries and new technological abilities, we also need to enable the
recognition of portrayed elements
In contrast, a literary work which actively portrays a panorama of life without taking sides in a moral dilemma, generates a different kind of landscape of reality. In the case in which a new narrative is developed where a moral situation is not specific, or not defined, this landscape then reveals inherent or intrinsic characteristics in the dimensions of the story, locale, or persons, via the on-going narrative itself in other words the picture tells the story
The purpose of this essay will not be to analyze the symbolism of dreams, but to explain my narrative presentation of a sequence of dreams which create a panoramic and psychological story. Considering human progress in the means of story-telling of the past three thousand years, from the times of oral-traditions being handed-down from generation to generation, to the establishment of learning academies, to the copying of literary and illustrated manuscripts in medieval times, to the wide publication of books of literature with Guttenbergs printing technology, to the dissemination of electronic books, digitalized audio readings and on-line file downloading, we finally begin to understand the physical principles of Media themselves and to appreciate their dynamics. As mentioned, a wide discussion and analysis of these principles was presented by McLuhan in Understanding Media. Thus aware of the evolution and jumps of methods and technology, we then perceive the gap between the linear perceptions of thinking enabled by literacy, along the lines of logical/linguistic Aristotelian categories of knowledge -- and the non-linear thought processes enabled by electronic technologies. This gap between linear and post-linear media can easily widen, eventually causing a breach in the historical continuity between these two basic steps in human evolution : It is the very communication between successive periods of technological development in which we have the continuity of History itself, in the arts, in literature and poetry -- and in the historical phases of music, architecture, style and fashion.
In psychological terms, any development of a literary form which pushes further open the thematic limits of the human imagination must be understood as a structural shift in concrete reality. This kind of development should therefore be considered as a barometric or seismographic tool which aids in the estimation of the dimensions of psychological and psychic reality.
Just as extreme new forms of comedy and satire can seem to stretch the limits of conventional sanity (sometimes being whimsically perceived as insane), so too, in prose writing, must new themes and novel modes of human thought also be taken into account as reasonably sane.
-- As a valid state
of the logical mind, we shall explore aspects of the In-Comprehensible
in personal perception, perspective, and communication in the development
of Post-Aristotelian and post-medieval philosophy from Descartes
neo-Rationalist methodology incorporating innate ideas; to John Lockes
emphasis on sense perception, reflective experience, and the phenomena
of mind; the mathematician Leibniz metaphysics from Plato. David
Hume developed an empiricism, that is, a supremacy of perception. Immanuel
Kant reconstructed the categories of knowledge and the logical criteria
of the critical faculties. Hegel qualified Aesthetics in art as one of
the main operations of Dialectics, that is, a critical process
to understand and appreciate truth and beauty and the synthesis of opposites.
In the mid-19th century, experimental science had reached a period of logical stasis, and there was a period of hostility between many scientists and philosophers over their apparently separate paths of development in the use of Reason. The atomic principle was defined an indivisible particle, according to the consistent physics of Democritus, Aristotle, and Newton.
A turning point in the expected results of logical experiment did occur, however, in a single mundane experiment being performed by Max Planck, with the super heating of an iron ball: the measured decline of its temperature back down somehow revealed unexpected and inexplicable spikes of thermal energy on the graph being released in the cooling process . Max Plancks radical inductive synectic analysis then shifted to a new Principle of Atomic Number, described by the Quantum Theory which explained these spikes as bursts of layers of multiple atomic shells. After more than 2,200 years, the atom could no longer be considered indivisible!
In July, 1945, after 50 years of severe tribulations, a theory of atomic structure, still unverified by visual technology, did lead indisputably to an effective method to release an atomic explosion. The atomic nucleus still had not been visually seen.
To write about life is one thing -- to write about dreams and to interweave them to create a continuous story is also to write about life, as the dreams we experience in the night also originate in the natural psyche. How these images move and weave themselves into sensible stories is still a matter of psychological debate, but they clearly represent and visualize certain interpersonal situations. The understanding of dream experience requires perhaps a shift in understanding of history itself, the psychological necessity to realize the meaning of symbols as they pertain to the uncertainty of the future. It is within the range from optimism to pessimism to apathy that we witness the daily unfolding of news events, and estimate the future of humanity. The shared consciousness of events creates a pattern of the forward motion of current history, as interpreted by news reporters.
In much the same manner, the acceptance by the individual of the responsibilities of life does form a continuum in the concurrent exercise of the imagination.
In scientific terms this exercise involves the realization and analysis of possible connections between emerging tech-nologies. But the problem is two-fold. First, there are the benefits to the course of invention, applications which will develop the human race through the creation of personal labor-saving devices, and the potential expansion of available time. But second, there is the importance in historical terms, which involves building an understanding of the relations between all the arts and sciences during any given time period. This constitutes an inductive principle and, by extension, applies to an understanding of the time in which an individual is aware of the future implications of each days events which are witnessed on television news programs or read about in the newspaper.
Here, in this perspective is the very danger of thought -- that of the means by which we apply our prejudices which are based upon our own seeming deductive reasoning process. Another, more conscious method of approach to this problem is the use of an awareness of the historical conditions which pertain to the situation being viewed.
In the artwork of the 20th century, the Surrealist movement developed a creative system which in many diverse visions and dream-like narratives yet served the psychoanalytic purpose of both Freud and Jung, and others, to express the reality of the Unconscious in its real formlessness, its real Oceanic experience, its Karma of life and-longer-than-life Intentions and yearnings of the Human Soul the reality of the Soul, as the Compendium of human experience and life
* * * *
Conversely, we have seen a corruption of language carried out, especially by military and corporate agencies whose interest has been to portray the destructive effects of their policies, activities, and actions in a diminished light of reality. The most familiar of these terms is collateral damage which refers to non-target human casualties of military actions: The effect here is to absolve blame in the murder of innocent civilians situated near military targets.
Explained in the
psychological terms of the past century, my own effort to reach an understanding
about the communication links (static and dynamic) between the Mind and
the Unconscious, may present the appearance to others that I, as a publicly
involved activist in the art field, have occasionally taken my imagination
out onto a tangent of thoughtIn the method of my own analysis though,
I am confident to believe this tangent to be a limb of the Tree of Knowledge
in need of exploration.
The Tree of Knowledge
of which we speak is really the system of learning which has come down
to us through the ages: the ancient practices and principles of metallurgy
and agriculture from Sumeria and Egypt, of medicine, mathe-matics, and
astronomy, of philosophy, art and drama, and of the psychology of life,
thought, and religion. Also filtering in to this knowledge, have been
the perceptions of mystics and the forms of systems of the spiritual dimensions
that have been proposed by prophets, visionaries, and theologians.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
The primary duty of non-fictional writing is the explanation of the writers ideas and definitions in a clear enough manner that they will describe the structure of images, patterns, or phenomena of the subject of the writing. This convention is extended, to some degrees, into any kind of writing that is being employed: fiction, prose, poetryany story, bit, or system of science or general knowledge presented in essay or outline form.
Anyone who has done historical research, crime detection, jig-saw puzzles, or computer analysis will testify that the parts which lead to the solution of any kind of puzzle are very often discovered out of linear sequence. These known parts must be subjectively arranged and rearranged as more parts of the puzzle are located, until a cohesive pattern can be ascertained, or it can be demonstrated that missing parts to the puzzle are lost or not yet available. This is the process of non-linear logic.In my own style of fiction writing, especially where the text pertains to the description of dreams, I have purposefully often pushed the conventional limits of phraseology to a fusion of poetic and prose language, in order to test the very cohesion of Matter and Consciousness. This is rebel Epistemology.
Along with the historical use of fable, such as in Aesop, Leonardo, and La Fontaine, there has also been employed the use of allegory, that is, a story line which creates a parallel to the description of a scientific principle, which serves as a device to specifically explain or illustrate that scientific thought. Examples of literary allegory in prose are to be found in such works as the Hypneroticamachia Polifili, 1499, Rablais Gargantua and Pantagruel, 1536, Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels, 1725, Voltaires Candide, 1765, Anatole Frances Penguin Island, 1909, and William S. Burroughs The Soft Machine, The Ticket That Exploded, and Nova Express of the 1960s.
Less understood is the principal of metaphor. Though widely used in poetry as a means to create a bridge between two dissimilar sensations or visions -- the use of metaphor in prose writing specifically conflicts with the prose methodology of linear exposition of descriptions and the narrative sequencing of events in order to tell a story.
However, when one wishes to record in writing the remembered sequence of events in a nighttime dream, one is soon perplexed by the difficulty to build a sensible continuity of dream events in strangely unfamiliar or eerily familiar locations along with a sequence of objects which have varying aspects of appropriate presence in the dream story. This pattern of non sequitur connections gives rise to the perception of objects as symbols, both within the dream sleep experience -- and in the waking reflection, or piecing-together, the parts of a dream memory, and the consideration of its meaning.
One paradoxical effect of reading is the phenomenon of confusion when one reaches the bottom of a page and not knowing what one has just read, whether this is caused by distraction, tiredness, or lack of clarity in the writing. This is a common event in reading any type of text, but when reading the description of a dream, there may be a desired side-effect, that this lapse of conscious attention might allow a sympathetic resonance effect to take place: that the reader may experience one of their own forgotten dreams emerging from the Unconscious mind into the Conscious awareness.
In this seemingly obvious definition we may discover both the principle and the effect of anticipation : the assumption or representation of a future act or eventuality as if it were already accomplished or existing.We will explore how the practice of definition and the process of description differ. Briefly, the former represents stasis, that is, a static and possessive interpretation of conventional reality as it is constructed in everyday experience. Whereas, description enables a fluid semantic of a variety of phenomena, even those which have been established in any given period of history as deterministic and/or as constant(s). As with the function of the "hand," from the Greek ancient "hchehri" or modern "heree" or the Latin hensus, prolepsis means really the act of the mind to get or to grasp -- in the possessive sense of seizing or holding something -- the object of a thought, before that object has even begun to appear. In this principle of comprehension, in the "hensile" meaning the brain acts as the extension of the hand; that is to say, where the brain relays back to the hand the enablement of its own will or emotional intention ...to touch, but in more or less of the certainty (or uncertainty) of to have.
In the 20th Century we watched this principle be carried to its monstrous extreme, when the metaphor of atavistic darkness assumed itself to power in the abdication of enlightenment -- when the force of naked Certainty, in the name of Adolph Hitler, clad himself in the glorified Will of tyranny, and purpose-fully took the rhetorical device to rationalize a Holocaust in the 20th Century of immeasurable proportions of suffering and murder: ...Future generations thank us for our efforts... The statement was made grammarically in the present-tense, but the actual grammaric tense would be in the plus perfect tense. (Example: as one would say, early in the day: by 10pm I will have eaten dinner, to describe the aftermath of a still future action, dinner.)
It is this problem that we wish to explore, the bias in the possessive sense of "reality" itself in psychology and society: the intention to possess "reality", in part, parcel, or in the realty of property, as well as the appropriation of objects by a subject, becomes therefore the agenda of possession, which we might term (perhaps not so tongue-in-cheek) "Reality Chauvinism."
In the formal argumentation of classical Rhetoric, prolepsis is a discipline which teaches the student to build into his opening proposition the responses to the possible "objections" to his argument, in order to rebuttal them in advance, and thus preempt from his opponent the effect or statement of those objections. We will also consider what it is in language that generates or enables the rhetoric of the objection.
When the usage of an adjective clause following the preposition like or as remains within the realm of evident effects understood by its contemporary science but more often pertinent to another type of association, that description is considered to enter the realm of poetic simile, as likeness.
A figure of speech expressed in a manner which is beyond the terms of "likeness", enters the dimensions of equivalence, identification, relation, or hyperbole: that is, metaphor.
Could the evolved
human form of consciousness ever be stated as a direct evolutionary result
of a primitive exercise
As well, we might conclusively say that it is our individual attractions that impel each of us towards the object and objects of our desire in various positive or negative actions; but it does not follow that there is no consideration of choice that takes place in the thought process: we do not blindly cast ourselves headlong in the direction of each and every stimulus, even as our appetite might suggest.
Simply amplified brain-aggression (or brain-posturing), the confidence contained in a subject's assertion of his own attributes or qualities (as they previously exist by development, acquisition, or heredity) could only be made under the support of an ego formation which has been buttressed into an unconscious, submerged personality trait. In social situations, this phenomenon takes place by a method of feedback of the attention or praise given by one's listeners: The first subject preempts or captures the attributes of another subject before they have been made manifest in the interval of time it takes to speak.
Prolepsis is also implied in the common transitive construction in every compound sentence in human language: Where a subject has a direct object of discussion or possession, this assumption if uncontested becomes the very statement of possession: When C is held by B, and B by A, then C is also held by A. The object of the discussion is held as a relation to the property of the subject him/her-self -- This is the very meaning of definition -- A bridge is desired to be built and perhaps a foreign continent to be occupied. Can one not see the metaphor to the human body?
Contrasting this form of aggression or territorial bordering, when epithet is used as a device of humor, (from Greek: epithenai, to put on,) there is also the deliberate or spontaneous occurrence of prolepsis. This is the scheme which often occurs in speech : the substitution of one term by another more abstract, so ascribing or anticipating an insinuated condition or impending situation.
To explore some of the inherent paradoxes of anticipation, I will use a discussion of the particular style of my own writing on dreams as a means to gauge the nature and grounds of knowledge (an epistemology), and also to examine the limits and validity of physical matter, even as experienced in the dream state.
These elements will also lead me into the later discussion of Abstraction in art as it is made of distinct objects from their non-objective or subjective perspectives.
As a kind of mathematical proof , this essay was prompted by the insight of a geometric interaction of subtle forces, a revelation which occurred during a conversation with painter/writer Joey Tomorrow, sculptor Suzan Shutan, and Andy Firk on the evening of January 28, 1992.
This geometry was contained in the realization that the electric energy occurring during the thought of a creative idea in the brain could easily be viewed as a tangential line at a right angle to Time. We view time, in terms of relativity, as the continuity of the arrival of light from a gravitational source. Depending on the source of a thought, whether perceptual or conceptual, the path of this line would flow either into or away from an instantaneous point in the stream of photons of light (represented by the cyclic motion of the hands of a clock, or the marking of measured seconds in a digital time piece.
Being hard-pressed to explain my geometric perception in an analogy which everyone in the conversation found comprehensible, I will take the time now to provide background and evidence for this proof in the third section, The Semantic Argument of the Dream, and will then recount parallels in older philosophical systems, quantum and physical science in the section called Perpendicular Forces. Therefore I owe this investigation to the instigation of my visual artists friends.
An examination of the basic principles which distinguishes something as either an "object" or a "subject" will help to reveal the hidden implications and assumptions in our verbal descriptions, and in our thoughts and speech. This is naturally the means by which we interpret to our own minds the unfolding or occurrence of events in the forward moving flow of time.
The semantic context of what it is which forms an objection in the rhetorical sense, or an objective condition in the practical dimension -- and that which predicates a subject or a subjective situation in a verbal statement -- seems to underlie the very critical issues in our civilization of property, the differential of power and privilege in gender discrimination, and of sexual expression and communication.
By contrast, the word "subject" derives from the Latin subicere, "to throw under", with the meaning of one which is placed under authority or control. Within this denotation, there are several types of meaning in use in general language: (1) one that is placed under authority or control, (2) one under the rule of a monarch and governed by his law, or lives in a territory, enjoying the protection of, and owing allegiance to a sovereign or state; (3) that of which a quality, attribute or relation may be affirmed or in which it may inhere; (4) a substratum as a material or essential substance; (5) the mind, ego, or agent of whatever sort that sustains or assumes the form of thought or consciousness; (6) a department of knowledge or learning; (7) one that is acted upon, or an individual whose reactions or responses are studied; (8) a corpse used for anatomical study; (9) something indicated or represented in a work of art; (10) the term of a logical proposition that denotes the entity of which something is affirmed or denied; (11) a word or word group that of which something is predicated; (12) the principal melodic phrase on which a musical composition or movement n based.
That which can be considered objective function also is defined in several senses. It is that which is (1) of or relating to an object of action or feeling; (2) only known in relation to an existing subject or willing agent; (3) that which is existent independent of mind; (4) belonging to the sensible world and being observable or verifiable especially by scientific methods.
As it is related to the "subject", the objective is that which emphasizes or expresses the nature of reality as it is apart from personal feelings or reflections; it is the entities which have no lives of their own, but are the side-products of the Social Contract.
In the "Mineral Kingdom," activity is considered due to external elements such as weather or erosion, interior geologic pressures such as in volcanic magma or petroleum deposits, and crystallization. It is thus that existent forms considered non-sentient are viewed as virtual "objects." Any suggestions of sentience in these organic and inorganic forms, except in the current speculations of biophysicists about viral colonial behavior, are most often regarded with scoffing skepticism.
It is also thus that these forms are forgiven their faults.
Semantic Argument of the Dream
The subject of my creative writing in two novels, "Fires Eternal Morning", and "Rain of the Ti'amat", is the exploration of the link of the dream with the archetypes of human history. Archetypes can be defined as the personal images and scenes which seem to undertake mythic proportions. In this essay I wish also to explore the link of the dream with religious propitiation, and with the anticipation and unconscious precipitation of events.
To explore the meaning of archetypal experience is to evaluate the perceptual faculties and come to a recognition of the forms and patterns which are recurrent in the sounds and visual structures of our world, or recurrent in the smells and tastes present in our towns or homes as related to organic processes, or from the elements, from cooking, flowering plants or sexual activity, from excretive functions, refuse matter, or other unidentifiable sources.
One may also vaguely remember spending times with a relative or childhood friend whom one cannot name or see clearly in the memory but might have had similar likes to one's own mature tastes in reading or music. Perhaps these impressions could be actual genetic echoes of the personality traits of one's own ancestors, but as inner images of unknown source, I will consider such occurrences to be possible proto-types in the greater category of archetypes.
The human body is often the focus of archetypal images: in my own memory there is a view of myself lying on a sandy beach, seen as though from standing above my own head, overlooking my body with my feet pointed out to sea, the interior of my featureless silhouette, filling with endless waves rolling and undulating and washing slowly to shore.
One might speculate whether these references are echoes of the individual self, strains of childhood memory, or possibly the shadows of ineffable beings.
Experiences of this sort seem to carry a relaxing effect, akin to opiate-induced visions, and these effects are basically tonic to the nervous system.
The human question remains unanswered by all fields of psychology, by science or medicine, and all the worlds major religions : What is the nature and the significance of dreams? As demonstrated by all sleep experiments, (in my own knowledge for example, those of the late Dr. Robbie Watson, at the Sleep Research Center at Griffin Hospital in Derby, Connecticut during the 1970's and 1980's,) there is a compelling importance of R.E.M. sleep to the physical and mental health of the organism. Without the free activity of dreaming, the function of the system on many levels, physiological and psychological, rapidly goes out of balance, including the measurable distortion of brain-waves often resulting in psychosis.
Even in civilized life, the time sense of the dream is rarely set in any conscious continuity with the memory of the moments just prior to passing into the sleep state, and this is consistent with the measurements of alpha waves in an inactive phase in the cycle of moments following the lapse into the sleep state. By contrast, during the more active cycle following, the anticipation of tasks to be performed upon awakening often filter in to the semi-conscious mind, and sometimes act as a trigger to the illogical or horrific events which may take place in the dream story.
As dreaming is the most ultimately personal form of experience, it would seem to require a highly democratic and individualized form of description and association. It has been intriguing to me from a self-psychological point of view, that over various periods in my life (and similarly that of late 20th Century history), I have detected a certain alternation, or an overlapping parallel of styles, as I construct these dream narrations into a "fictional device," between the two modes of : (1) chronology and (2) selective determination.
In the former mode, chronology, as reflected in natural behavior, the manifestation of the instincts takes place and is later viewed in a retrospective of events described in the grammatical present-tense, if considered in words at all.
Similarly as in the writing of medieval chronicles (agrarian village histories and gathered news reports spanning periods of decades), the unfolding of events is recorded in a basic personal style. In the chronicle, only limited descriptions of the historical significance of present circumstances are related, as though they were commonly known to all. Yet there is a kind of hypnotic fascination with detail which tends to override the natural capacity to foresee the logical consequences of actions taken.
In agrarian society, previous to the introduction of print and newspapers, the passage of time was marked socially by those experiences held in common by their unusual nature: the births, marriages or deaths of prominent persons or loved ones, or by the extremes of war or weather resulting in permanent changes to the environment. In our own day, a famine, severe hurricane, flood, or blizzard is often spoken about for 100 years or more.
In modern television news reporting -- where the anchorperson speaks into the all-knowing, un-informed eye of the public archetype -- the style of chronology unconsciously employs the system of Darwin's Theory of Evolution: Daily developments, natural and anthropological, are boiled down to the depiction events as isolated individual phenomena -- categorizing the objective case, without regard to any pattern recognition or subjective correlation to related events, except in the moralistic sense based on the commonality of its consensual audience. The sense of the perceived reception is based on the internal recognition by the speaker in the present tense that people of all stripes of the moral and everywhere on the political spectrum are simultaneously listening to the live broadcast.. This actually is a specific pattern of the so-called morphic resonance of events which take place in contemporaneous time.
The disruption of the fabric of a minor culture, or the forced adaptation of an isolated individual are subliminally viewed under the two dimensional closure of the television screen, encapsulating a panorama of emotions displayed by interviewed participants, witnesses, and onlookers.
By contrast, when writing in the latter mode, that of selective determination, my selections of particular dreams to construct a story line are seemingly more representative of the exercise of making choices by a unified psyche. But to examine the dynamics of the term "determination", outside of a strict literal reading, still raises questions regarding the relation-ships of personal and biological motivations.
The higher faculties of the rational Will of "thought" are themselves a microcosm of all other instincts and processes. Thought is also at times conscious of itself: 'it's "Self"' : "Who" is thinking about "what" ? It would seem, moreover, that the "self" which represents the instinctual/intuitive being, the physical/ mental person as witnessed in the dream, is the most integrated, or seamless of the inner personalities.
In my youth I determined to design a form of composition which would blend and arrange my own nocturnal visions, early experiences, and childhood games, into a working plot. So I then sought to develop a style which is both a purely sequential chronology of my morning records, and alternatively, a selective organization. As the writing developed of its own experiential non-linear logic, its style as a combination of poetry and prose, a naturalistic prose-poetry, emerged.
The purpose of that composition at the beginning, to record the symbolism of erotic, morbid and mysterious dreams, dictated a perhaps casual use of form: an experiment of poetic phrasing and sense of time, an enclosed or abrupt scope of episode, culminating in a resolution of emotion with prophecy in a form akin to epic.
However, in the midst of that experiment of form, a recognizable pattern quickly emerged to my under-standing, showing several parallel threads of continuity of action and purpose, and also showing the similarities of circumstance and mood.
This principle is in slow-motion the same as the sensation which Albert Einstein as a young man experienced on his famous tram-car ride through Berne, Switzerland in 1900 when, on his way to work at his clerical job in the patent office, he noticed that the activities on the busy avenues, and the widths of buildings passed by, seemed com- pressed together to his view by the forward velocity of the car in which he rode. His question: "What would the world look like if I rode on a beam of light?" His concluding observation: "The hands on the clock tower would be frozen. I, the tram, this box riding on the beam of light, would be fixed in time. Time would have a stop."
"Fires Eternal Morning", works with the element of psychic fire in the dream and the possibility of material annihilation that its use poses, the sense of loss of family and safety, the environment returned to primitive hostility: the setting of a middle American social fabric such as it existed in the Cold War Period, disrupted by an apocalyptic political upheaval triggering natural catastrophes.
"Rain of Ti'amat" describes a modern society undermined by the natural elemental forces that its own contemporary politics, therapeutics, and goods, have sought to suppress and send to oblivion. It is an atavistic resurgence of the nightmare powers of the unbelievably primordial mother dragon remembered from the dawn of civilization, the Monster of the Id, which threatens anew to sink it into an irresistible entropy of darkness and control.
The principle of prolepsis often comes into play in the course of the plot of a dream as it unfolds. In this scenario, a person's emotional or mental anticipation, or their certain fears or phobias, then predetermine or foretell events or behavior. In some scenarios, these conditions establish the recognition of an unknown or long-forgotten person. This anticipation may be concerned with an emotional response to an experienced feeling, or to the expectation of another's actions.
Mood plays an important role in the experience of dreams; the dream content may be animated by vivid color, or may be dark and sinister to invoke anxiety...
I would like to compare the effect of tangential lines with this earlier prototypical model which Leibniz has created of an egg-shaped or indefinite column-shaped integral form. I would also like to begin to show how these models are both mathematically and conceptually related in a historical relationship which has been at work beneath the threshold of perception.
In the late medieval period, as scientific experimentation had become more wide-spread in the West, especially with the refinement of clocks, telescopes and other optical instruments, one of the most important issues of discussion in theology and philosophy had become the concept of the Absolute, the formula of an Aristotelian static universe that had been adapted and expanded over the centuries as the foundation of the dimensions of astronomy, geometry, and social order. Indeed, the NeoPlatonist, Martinanus Capella, who flourished 410 to 420 CE, categorized his schoolbook, The Marriage of Philology and Mercury, which was used through Roman times and the Middle Ages, into two stages of learning for students, the Trivium (Grammar, Dialectic, and Rhetoric), and the Quadrivium (Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy, and Harmony).
The growing prominence of foreign trade with the East from the late Thirteenth Century onward had brought about the emergence of a mercantile class whose wealth began to surpass that of the landed gentry of the ancient patrician and feudal aristocracy. Spices were greatly desired in order to improve the taste and preservation of meat; silks as a relief from the coarseness of European textiles.
In seafaring towns and cities job opportunities arose in the many levels of commerce which would allow an escape from the static, landlocked worlds of peasant and vassal alike.
In the North countries, removed from the strongest influence of the Church's sovereignty over the moral and economic order of society, the old finite universe of feudalism seemed ready to disintegrate and lay bare its essentials and underpinnings to the eyes of mathematical scrutiny. Johann (Meister) Eckhart's writings on Christian symbolism in the 13th Century, proposed direct communion with God, bypassing the catechistic authority of the Church. Such also was the visual understanding later contained in the artworks of Albrecht Durer, Pieter Brueghel, and Hieronymous Bosch.
Writing on the sense of the Absolute around the turn of the 18th Century, Leibniz derives from Plato and Plotinus this model to discuss the spatial aspects and distinctions between the concepts of object and subject.
The principle of objectification was descended from the philosophy of Aristotle (Analytica Posteriora). The egg of the deductive process of syllogism was hatching in Leibniz' time as the scientific (post-alchemical) methods of experimentation and forensics. As an alter- native, Leibniz incorporated two other principles of Aristotle: the inductive process (also Analytica Posteriora) and (via Descartes and Thomas Aquinas) the soul (De Anima).
Monads which exist in the Absolute of Time/Space (that is to say, outside of space/time) each as an "singular" entity, reflect all other Monads from all of their facets, as well as all of the entire universe.
In Leibniz's formula: "the Monad is the integral unit of activity, mirroring all other monads, but incapable of fusion or interface. Each Monad exists as in a series, each in its own place mirroring all the others, the last in the series being the most active, therefore God."
This seemingly abstract theory, proposed during the same period as the finite mechanized universe of Sir Isaac Newton, was to gradually submerge in the subsequent layers of conceptual philosophies build upon its basis of the symbolic logic of 18th Century scientists, until its reapplication to the conceptual structures of "logical entities" and the communication of parameters utilized by the digital computer. Norbert Wiener, one of the builders of the first working computer, the ENIAC, gives Leibniz' principle of the calculus ratiocinator the credit of the first reasoning machine design, the machina ratiocinatrix.
Leibniz replaces the pair of corresponding elements, mind and matter, proposed in Spinoza's geometry as the self-contained attributes of God, with a continuum of corresponding elements: the monads. In his 1949 book Cybernetics: Control and Communication in the Animal and Machine, Norbert Wiener (himself a pupil of Bertrand Russell) explains : "While these are conceived after a pattern of the soul, each monad lives in its own closed universe, with a perfect causal chain from the creation or from minus infinity in time to the indefinitely remote future; but closed as they are, they correspond to one another through the pre-established harmony of God. Leibniz compares them to clocks, made with God's perfect workmanship, which have been so wound up as to keep time together from the creation through all of eternity."
In his Monadology (1714), Leibniz addresses this theory to a theological issue: "It is impossible that there should be no souls because souls are the simple substances of which the universe consists and therefore were there no souls there would be no bodies. Bodies are composites, and the simples of which composites consist are the monads. All the monads are not souls, but souls only differ from simple monads by their position in the hierarchy. The reason there can be no interaction between mind and body is not because they are sub-stantially different, but because the monads which constitute the reality of the body do not give it the status of the body. It is only for the dominant monad or mind that the body is body, the mind therefore could only act on the body by acting on the monads which constitute the body, and there is no interaction between monads."
Rather than viewing the universe in a mechanized model, Leibniz turns an organic insight: "Each portion of matter may be conceived of as a garden full of plants, and as a pond full of fishes. But each branch of the plant, each animal is also such a garden or pond."
In this statement he refers to living organisms as plenum, wherein other living organisms, such as blood corpuscles have many if not all of the attributes of living matter.
In form, the Monad
can be visualized in multiple objectified models: 1. as an impervious,
impenetrable chromium spheroid, reflecting with a precision that is mercurial
with warmth and depth. 2. The universe of monads can be thought of as
a line of endlessly rising pure marble columns coming around in a chain
to form a vast endless spiral, each a pillar of space supporting the history
of Time, in this case of the planet Earth, beginning in the mists of the
void, and crowned by the dewy, unfolding petals of the scarlet rose.
Were the Monads to be named in chronological order, as if they were a pond full of gardens, we might call them: ...the void...the origin...the past...the physical present...the potential...the ideal...the eternal...the dream...the vastness
A simple model of comparison between a three- and a four-dimensional structure would be to estimate the position of the Earth on a certain day of the year. Astrophysicists have determined that our sun is moving at a rate of approximately 200 miles per second in the relative direction of the constellation Virgo. So, in this regard, the elliptical path of each planet in its orbit, is further extended by the velocity of the star in its own orbital path within the galaxy, and the galaxy's directional movement in the so-called red-shift. This red-shift is actually, the shift of the element calcium in the chemical spectrum, indicating the increasing distance of an object in Space. Therefore, the elliptical orbits of the planets in our solar system, and all others, are actually respectively moving in forward spirals through extra-galactic Space. These are the spirals of growth cycles described by Rupert Shelldrake in his theory of Morphic Resonance, and also the spirals that are shown in the spirals emerging from the Golden Section point into the Fibonacci expansion. Beyond Virgo is also the area in intergalactic space which measures the warmest in the background field of "radio-activity" considered to be left over from the BIG BANG, the Singularity before symmetry. It is also the direction in which all galaxies appear to be moving, as they mutually expand, according to the evidence of the red-shift of the Doppler.
The fact that our sun follows its own orbit in the turning galaxy, and the galaxy itself is moving out into the void of space, would require us to trace a "world-line" of the Earth's location, spiraling forward into time, much as our own Moon follows its own orbital path around the Earth in motion.
Leibniz interpreted the monads as occurring in a series, the last being the most active. However, in the light of 20th Century theories we will attempt to interpolate:
Investigations begun in 1929 by Edwin Hubble at Mount Wilson Observatory are currently continuing to determine whether the number of galaxies within various distances from us increases in (1) direct proportion to, (2) faster than; or (3) more slowly than, the cubes of these distances. If the first possibility is true, the space of the universe is Euclidean (static); in the second case, the universe has a negative curvature, being wide open in all directions; in the third case, space has a positive curvature and must eventually close upon itself.
In the first case, in a static universe, the series of monads would indeed form an endless straight line forward into time. Both of the other possibilities would require us to consider all of the monads forming a circle along the edge of the curvature of space.
In the second case, a negative curvature strongly suggests the ancient Gnostic vision of "The Pleroma", described by Valentinus in the Second Century: the sense of the Absolute of the "fullness" of a universe of totally expansive depths, such as an unfathomable ocean, indeed the well of the subjective cosmic/oceanic experience spoken of by diverse mystics over the ages.
Perhaps in the third case, that of a positive curvature, as predicted by Einstein in his Theory of General Relativity, the diameter of this circular spiral of monads would measure the Conceptual times the Speed of Thought squared.
In scientific experiments at the turn of the 20th Century, instruments called black bodies (dense metallic objects) were used to gauge the release of emissions in electro-chemical reactions. The black body is a useful testing apparatus as its composition will completely absorb all radiant energy focused onto it with no reflection and should naturally give off a continuous spectrum of heat and light, as opposed to the testing characteristics of various other chemical elements.
It was then detected that when heated to a given temperature the black body itself gave off a maximum amount of energy at a particular wavelength, decreasing as the temperature was increased.
This effect presented a dilemma to experimenters, because previous theories had stated specifically that if electro-magnetic oscillations were given out by naturally vibrating materials, the quantity of energy released would increase indefinitely as the wavelength of the radiation was decreased, thus according to the principle of frequency undulation.
In 1900, Max Planck derived a solution to the phenomenon by suggesting that if the radiation from the black body were given out discontinuously in quanta, where the energy of a single quantum was proportional to the frequency of the radiation, the emission of the longer wavelengths towards the red end of the spectrum would be favored at low temperatures, as the energy of the quanta would be small. At higher temperatures more energy would be released, with the emission of larger quanta at the shorter wavelengths. Thus a maximum amount of energy (the "quanta") was emitted at a certain wavelength, and the wavelength shifted towards the short end of the spectrum as the temperature was increased.
It is as if a dam were built without gates and so perfectly level that the water accumulating in its deep reservoir would eventually fill to the brim, inching out over the wall until the resistance of surface pressure were suddenly exceeded, and the water released, spilling out in a massive rush, uniformly over its top.
But in scientific experimentation and in the language of mathematical formula, the meaning of probability directly counteracts the anticipation of logical results.
If seen in its geometric perspective, the concept of prolepsis is the basis of the simple (normal) duality of object vs. subject. It proposes the subject as a figure (the interior, contained body), in mutual or parity orbit with its object (the exterior, other body) But this principle is directly challenged by the theory of Probability which accepts that the interior contents of any object cannot ever be definitively known according to any rational principle of absolute location. In other words, the single identity or the mirror image of "subject" (first-person) with object (second- or third-person singular) can only be considered of incidental correlation.
So the whole nature of anticipation becomes transformed from the possibility of the possession of a fixed object, and raised to a scientific level, in terms of the question of probability to: Where is anything?
Alfred North Whitehead, writing an admonition to physicists and philosophers in Science and The Modern World, 1928, and Adventures in Ideas, 1954, elaborated a phenomenon which he called "The Fallacy of Absolute Location," warning that the logic of mathematics indicates, (and that the science of Quantum Mechanics would forseeably demonstrate), that two objects could and sometimes do occupy the same "space", and that a single object can exist in two places at once. This principle definitively occurs on a microscopic scale.
In the 1970's, speaking of the Quark particle, now believed to constitute the basic building blocks of the proton, three to each, Salaam argued against the so-called "Dogma of Exact Confinement" advanced by certain physicists working in the field who had predicted that any evidence of the quark would only be detected by experiment within the boundaries of the proton, and that the electric charges carried by the associated electrons would be measured at one-third and two-thirds the charge of their proton nuclei.
In order to state the probability of a non-confined pattern of quark particles, and their hypothesis that quarks and electron particles were directly related in their display of so-called "color" ("up", "down", "strangeness", and "charm"), Salaam and his camp, with tongues firmly in cheek, formed the "Quark Liberation Front."
The concept of a so-called "space" wherein an object is situated had been challenged in 1935 by Werner Heisenberg's "Uncertainty Principle," stating that particles are contained in predictable positions only according to the laws of Probability, rather than any temporal observation through an electron microscope. This means that a given particle is nearly unobservable in a predictable location.
The use of Abstraction in the imagery of 20th Century painting poses the question to human compre-hension, of a visually represented expression of qualities which are apart from the nature of discernible or existent objects. Thus, the emergence of so-called Non-objective painting--- Modern Abstraction had started off in the art world in the mid-1800s as nearly a contradiction-in-terms to the then-contemporary convention of art, as there was minimal bearing of the historically marginal practitioners of abstraction in 15th century European art. In the incidental sense of marginal, one can see forms of abstraction in the complexity of compositional drapery, cloudy skies, and in large edge sections of mural-size paintings.
The intrinsic is that belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing as its inner architecture or in the amorphous parts of a thing. The thing itself might be an objective object or it might be a subjective entity. At least in the case of the latter, as the development of the entity expands in terms of its own growth, some of those constituent parts might be shown to be subjective factors, that is simply, in terms of the individual's own specific experiences, that which having occurred or being later viewed in a particular emotional color or light.
In terms of the natural tendencies of painting in art, the principle of abstraction must by definition denote the individual experience of the artist expressed by the artist, whether that experience be of their own perception of a geometrical or mathematical space in his own terms, or of an amorphous, polymorphous, or metamorphous space.
In art history, many of these forms of expression have already been demonstrated and applied. Geometric; Op-Art and Photo-Realism have demonstrated the geometric and mathematical experience. Amorphous representation has been illustrated by Impressionism, Indian Space Painting, and Abstract Expressionism. Polymorphous art has been created by Pointillism, Fauve, Bauhaus design, Dadism, Futurism, Pop-Art, and the Anachronistici. And metamorphic representation has been demonstrated with Cubism, Surrealism, and many examples of so-called "Outsider Art."
The Dream Reflection in the face of the Deep
Unlike matter/energy time/space which must obey the equation of E=MC2, each monad that exists eternally, or one that is actually created from nothingness, reflects everything which surrounds or confronts it, but does not manifest its internal contents.
What then are these internal contents?
Does this mean that the contents are oblique and/or opaque to external reality?
The Monad, whether it is representative or perfect actually carries two separate forces in operation:
(1) The external force, which in a "representative mode" may also be non-objective, abstract, or figurative (of the figure's postural model), but yet remains in each sense a simile or a copy -- or in a "perfect mode" is prismatic, or absolutely reflective only of another Monad.
Similitude is the principle by which the activity of growth proceeds by extension, and/or recognition, and/or abridgement.
Abridgement is the effect of elongation and return to itself. Recognition here is the conscious realization of likeness in another or in the self.
Extension is the
principle of (2) The internal force, which is entirely organic of itself,
and operates without given revelation only according to its own structure
of chemically balanced secretions, electrically active pulsations, and
ultimately according to its own encodations of matched linkages.
In the final analysis as sentient beings we must confront the reality of our own bodies, certainly as they have evolved up to the present stage. As Sandor Ferenczi, the contemporary and correspondent of Freud, stated in Thalassa: A Theory of Genitality, "an individual life, as well as human history, represents the recapitulation of the entire evolution of life from the first ameno acid, the first metabolic cell, the tree of life, the phylogeny of all species."
To continue as a species, and to ensure the survival of all the species of life, we must begin to resolve the dilema and the dicotomy of object and subject, to form a democracy of beings and of all king doms of existence, and to accept not only the mechanistic nature of our biological instincts but also the mystery of our own sexuality.
Even here in this middle domain the ephemeral situation presents itself in the intrinsic problems of the workings of the psyche, the nature of emotions, and the confrontations and juxtapositions of both with mental thought.
It is, however, non-predictable phenomena which can be anticipated. This is not to state the obvious, but to attempt a recognition of the amorphous quality which cloaks the potentiality, a cloud of dark shadow; and also to attempt a realization, an unfolding of the seeds of those hidden qualities.
The categories of
the mind are only the perception of the duality of these amorphous and
overlapping realms, the intersection of two perpendicular planes, each
formed by a pair of orbital circles
Sometimes the distinctions or the parallels of activity or energy are clearly revealed with frightening consequences, such as when the sighting of a dead animal by the roadside occurs coincidentally at the moment an important consideration or decision in thought. The question of mortality is somehow affirmed.
The literal sense of the term "confrontation" should be understood as the adjacent, oppositional, frontal border of two separate entities, where the biologic stresses provide pressures from the inside of each border. The most obvious model of this interaction is the model of sexual behavior in the human, both in intercourse and in the emotional embrace. The element of time given to the expression, either protracted or brief, determines the degree and nature of the systems response and resolution of these intrinsic forces. This is to say that time is required for the organism to remotivate, restage, relive and relieve the forces of instinctual energies.
This formula contains an implied recognition of the identity (the sameness in parity) of the inmost pressuring forces, and therefore an identity of subject and object, on the most human level of biologic need, apart from personal differences.
It is often argued, in both Eastern Yoga and Western contemporary anti-sexist culture, that the conscious abstinence from sexuality elevates or liberates the rest of the organism from this need. But many facets to this theme remain recurrent, which continually frustrate this singular purpose of mind. In the East, a resolution is offered to this problem in the tenets of the Yoga of Action, which recognizes the objective purpose of an enlightenment of the mind, as well as a view without prejudice of a "concurrent totality" of the presence of divine creation and manifestation.
The forces of chronology can be identified as those in biology which compose the basic sexual drive itself: (1) instinctal attraction and desire made conscious; (2) common confrontation and affection with the object; (3) the penetration and/or compression of the sexual organs; (4) release in orgasm, relaxation, and physiological tonus; (5) gestation and reproduction; (6) perpetuation of the species; (7) sleep and dream; (8) aging and progression; (9) death and silence.
There is a region
of correspondence, however, between chronology and determination in this
model of behavior, and this correspondence is clearly expressed in the
Hindu culture with its historical pre- occupation with sensuality, the
erotic, and the languid landscape of the body, suggesting a transcendency
Most mysteriously, it is the function of uncertain possibility and its possible reward of fulfillment that replenishes the motivating spiritual purpose of all action -- to reconnect the totality of animate souls.
The nature of the intimacy of the emotions is, by contrast to chronology, the etermination to reveal Time by the opening up of unknown potentialities. The Bridge represents the equation of the qualities, the constants and variables of each of the meeting parties, multiplied, divided, or exponentialized, across the coupula of the is, crossing the short parallel span of two horizontal lines, the equal sign. Time presses forward with the urgency of giving birth to the universe itself to be.
The Bridge, employed as the metaphor for life's directions, combinations, and separations is the same as in the promise: "We will cross that bridge when we come to it..."
~ Johnes Ruta
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